Mappe: Boundaries 2017 a + Merenl Kindt
Tom Beckers and Merel Kindt
Experimental research on emotional memory reconsolidation interference, or the induction of amnesia for previously established emotional memory, has a long tradition, but the potential of that research for the development of novel interventions to treat psychological disorders has been recognized only recently. Here we provide an overview of basic research and clinical studies
on emotional memory reconsolidation interference. We point out speciﬁc advantages of interventions based on memory reconsolidation interference over traditional treatment for emotional disorders. We also explain how ﬁndings from basic research suggest limitations and challenges to clinical translation that may help to understand why clinical trials have met with mixed success so far and how their success can be increased. In closing, we preview new intervention approaches beyond the induction of amnesia that the phenomenon of memory reconsolidation may afford for alleviating the burden imposed by emotional memories and comment on theoretical controversies regarding the nature of memory reconsolidation.
Mappe: Authors/Alain Brunet/2018 a
Alain Brunet, Ph.D., Daniel Saumier, Ph.D., Aihua Liu, Ph.D., David L. Streiner, Ph.D., Jacques Tremblay, M.D., Roger K. Pitman, M.D.
Objective: The authors assessed the efﬁcacy of trauma memory reactivation performed under the inﬂuence of propranolol, a noradrenergic beta-receptor blocker, as a putative reconsolidation blocker, in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Method:Thiswasa6-week,double-blind,placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in 60 adults diagnosed with longstanding PTSD. Propranolol or placebo was administered 90 minutes before a brief memory reactivation session, once a week for 6 consecutive weeks. The hypothesis predicted a signiﬁcant treatment effect of trauma reactivation with propranolol compared with trauma reactivation with placebo in reducing PTSD symptoms on both the ClinicianAdministered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the patient-rated PTSD Checklist–Speciﬁc (PCL-S) in an intention-to-treat analysis.
Results: The estimated group difference in posttreatment CAPS score, adjusted for pretreatment values (analysis of covariance), was a statistically signiﬁcant 11.50. The within-group pre- to posttreatment effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were 1.76 for propranolol and 1.25 for placebo. For the PCL-S, the mixed linear model’s estimated time-by-group interaction yielded an average decrease of 2.43 points per week, for a total signiﬁcant difference of 14.58pointsabovethatofplacebo.Thepre-toposttreatmenteffect sizes were 2.74 for propranolol and 0.55 for placebo. Per protocol analyses for both outcomes yielded similar signiﬁcant results.
Conclusions: Pre-reactivation propranolol, a treatment protocol suggested by reconsolidation theory, appears to beanovel and efﬁcacious treatment for PTSD. Replication studies using a long-termfollow up in various trauma populations are required.
Mappe: authors/Karim Nader 2014 a
Lars Schwabe, Karim Nader, and Jens C. Pruessner
The processes of memory formation and storage are complex and highly dynamic. Once memories are consolidated, they are not necessarily ﬁxed but can be changed long after storage. In particular, seemingly stable memories may re-enter an unstable state when they are retrieved, from which they must be re-stabilized during a process known as reconsolidation. During reconsolidation, memories are susceptible to modiﬁcations again, thus providing an opportunity to update seemingly stable memories. While initial demonstrations of memory reconsolidation came mainly from animal studies, evidence for reconsolidation in humans is now accumulating as well. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of human memory reconsolidation. After a summary of ﬁndings on the reconsolidation of human fear and episodic memory, we focus particularly on recent neuroimaging data that provide ﬁrst insights into how reconsolidation processes are implemented in the human brain. Finally, we discuss the implications of memory modiﬁcations during reconsolidation for the treatment of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and drug addiction.