By J. Ledoux
Joseph E. LeDoux Explains What is Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation?
Richard Gray. 2011
Mappe: Terapier-protokoler/NLP/2011 a
The intrusive symptoms of PTSD Impact thousands of state and local police officers, armed service men and women and civilians of every description. Current treatments rooted in extinction protocols require extensive commitments of time and money and often have limited effectiveness. This study reviews two important mechanisms that explain when treatment does and doesn’t work: extinction and reconsolidation. It then reviews the research regarding and suggests an explanatory mechanism for the Visual-Kinesthetic Dissociation Protocol, also known as the Rewind Technique. The technique is notable for its lack of discomfort to the patient, the possibility of being executed as a content free intervention, its speed of operation and its long term, if largely anecdotal, efficacy. Specific diagnostics for extinction and reconsolidative mechanisms and suggestions for future research are provided.
Mappe: ECT/2014 a
Maximilian Gahr, M.D.
Carlos Schönfeldt-Lecuona, M.D. Manfred Spitzer, M.D.
Heiko Graf, M.D.
Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy III, University Hospital of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
To the Editor: Strong and recurrent activation of traumatic memory contents (TMC) was suggested to be an essential pathophysiologic mechanism in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 1 Thus, reduced activation or availability of this particular TMC could result in amelioration of PTSD core symptoms.
Recently demonstrated efficacy of ECT in the treatment of PTSD 3 might be due to impaired reactivation of TMC. Consolidated memory contents are suggested to be destabilized during their retrieval, and thus, sensitive for modifications at the time of their current recall and reconsolidation. 4 Hence, ECT might be most effective immediately after an active (conversation-based) confrontation with the TMC
a conversation-based reactivation of this particular TMC was performed immediately before ECT (duration of 10 minutes). The patient was advised to remember the accident and to describe his particular memories verbally (average time between end of memory reactivation and application of etomidate: 10 minutes)
The patient reported improvement of PTSDsymptoms accompanied by a more clear improvement of depression. PTSD-symptoms related to the accident subsided completely and though PTSD-symptoms persisted, they were not accompanied by memories related to the accident.
Evidence for the possible efficacy of ECT in the treatment of therapy-refractory PTSD by specific elimination of one particular TMC. However, PTSD symptoms did not subside completely. This is partly explained by the fact that the patient´s PTSD was due to multiple traumas.
Daniela Schiller 1,2 , Marie-H. Monfils 1,3 , Candace M. Raio 2 , David C. Johnson 2 , Joseph E. LeDoux 1 & Elizabeth A. Phelps 1,2
Recent research on changing fears has examined targeting reconsolidation. During reconsolidation, stored information is rendered labile after being retrieved. Pharmacological manipulations at this stage result in an inability to retrieve the memories at later times, suggesting that they are erased or persistently inhibited. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological manipulations in humans can be problematic. Here we introduce a non-invasive technique to target the reconsolidation of fear memories in humans. We provide evidence that old fear memories can be updated with non-fearful information provided during the reconsolidation window. As a consequence, fear responses are no longer expressed, an effect that lasted at least a year and was selective only to reactivated memories without affecting others. These findings demonstrate the adaptive role of reconsolidation as a window of opportunity to rewrite emotional memories, and suggest a non-invasive technique that can be used safely in humans to prevent the return of fear.