Mappe: authors/Karim Nader 2014 a
Lars Schwabe, Karim Nader, and Jens C. Pruessner
The processes of memory formation and storage are complex and highly dynamic. Once memories are consolidated, they are not necessarily ﬁxed but can be changed long after storage. In particular, seemingly stable memories may re-enter an unstable state when they are retrieved, from which they must be re-stabilized during a process known as reconsolidation. During reconsolidation, memories are susceptible to modiﬁcations again, thus providing an opportunity to update seemingly stable memories. While initial demonstrations of memory reconsolidation came mainly from animal studies, evidence for reconsolidation in humans is now accumulating as well. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of human memory reconsolidation. After a summary of ﬁndings on the reconsolidation of human fear and episodic memory, we focus particularly on recent neuroimaging data that provide ﬁrst insights into how reconsolidation processes are implemented in the human brain. Finally, we discuss the implications of memory modiﬁcations during reconsolidation for the treatment of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and drug addiction.